White Sea

The White Sea is a bay of the Barents Sea on the northwest coast of Russia. The total surface area is approximately 35,000 square miles (90,000 square km). Depth is 200 ft (60 m) and its maximum depth is 1,115 ft (340 m) in the north part of the Kandalaksha inlet.It is bounded by Karelia to the west, the Kanin Peninsula to the northeast, and the Kola Peninsula to the north.

White Sea has the important port of Arkhangelsk. This was Russia's main centre of international maritime trade, carried out by the so-called Pomors or "seaside settlers" from Kholmogory. The White Sea with the Baltic Sea is connected by White Sea-Baltic Canal.



Winds are mainly southwestern in winter with speeds of 4-8m/s. Cold air comes from the south, and the temperature is -15 C (February). The northern part of temperature is -9 C, sometimes reaching -6 C, due to the warm air masses from the Atlantic. Summers are cold and cloudy, with northeastern winds and frequent rains. The average temperature in northeastern is-25 C (brings much colder weather). In the month of July, average temperature is 8-10 C. In winter, the sea freezes from October to November till May to June. In the month of January, the water temperature is -1.9 C in the north, between -1.3 and -1.7 ? in the centre, and between -0.5 and -0.7 ? in the bays. The thickness of the ice is about 40 cm and it may reach up to 150 cm in cold winters. In summer, the water warms up to 15 ?, in north it remains cold at 7-8 ?, because of water exchange between the surface and the cold bottom part which is extent of the shallow depths in the northern parts.


White Sea contains more than 700 species of multi cellular invertebrates, 60 species of fish, and 5 species of marine mammals including friendly Beluga and white whale. Several dolphin species such as Harbour Porpoises, it appears low while large whales are rare visitors to the waters. Fishing industry is relatively low and greatest foods are the herring.


The White Sea has a many number of small islands. Solovetsky Islands is the main island group in the White Sea, located almost in its middle. Kiy Island in Onega Bay is important due to a historic monastery. Velikiy Island is the largest island in the Kandalaksha Gulf, located close to the shore.

List of Seas in Arctic Ocean

Amundsen Gulf
James Bay
Baffin Bay
Kara Sea
Barents Sea
Kara Strait
Beaufort Sea
Laptev Sea
Bering Sea
Lincoln Sea
Chukchi Sea
Prince Gustav Adolf Sea
East Siberian Sea
Pechora Sea
Greenland Sea
White Sea
Hudson Bay